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Gay Toys, Inc., Plaintiff-appellee, v. Buddy L Corporation, Defendant-appellant, 703 F.2d 970 (6th Cir. 1983)

Richard D. Grauer, Cullen, Sloman, Cantor, Grauer, Scott & Rutherford, Detroit, Mich., John M. Calimafde (argued), New York City, for defendant-appellant.

Robert G. Mentag (argued), Detroit, Mich., for plaintiff-appellee.

Ronald Goldman, Chief Patent Counsel Asst. Secretary and Atty. for Mattel, Inc., Hawthorne, Cal., amicus curiae.

Before ENGEL and MARTIN, Circuit Judges, and BROWN, Senior Circuit Judge.

BAILEY BROWN, Senior Circuit Judge.

The problem raised in this appeal is whether or not toys are copyrightable matter that is subject the 1976 Copyright Act, 17 U.S.C. 101-810. The region court held that toys aren’t copyrightable as they are « useful articles » as defined under Sec. 101 associated with statute. 522 F. Supp. 622 (E.D. Mich. 1981).

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The appellant, Buddy L Corporation, is just a doll maker based in new york. It designed a toy that is new, the « Air Coupe, » which apparently was provided on the market to your public in April 1978. Id. at 623.

The appellee, Gay Toys, Inc., is really a model maker positioned in Southeastern Michigan. Gay Toys also designed a new model airplane. Based on Gay Toys, its Product developing Committee came across in late 1979 to go over some ideas for having a toy airplane that is new. During its deliberations, the committee had before it examples of different model airplanes currently available on the market, including Buddy L’s Air Coupe, along with catalogs of genuine and model airplanes. The committee made a decision to direct a designer to develop, within particular specified limitations, a toy airplane that is new. No two-dimensional technical drawings had been made very very first; instead, the designer developed a lumber model from scratch. Nonetheless, the designer had certainly one of Buddy L’s Air Coupes right in front of him as he done the timber model, and then he sometimes described it. The end result was Gay Toys’ « Flying Eagle we. »

Right after Gay Toys place its Flying Eagle we in the marketplace, Buddy L notified Gay Toys that it had been infringing on Buddy L’s copyright within the Air Coupe. In reaction, Gay Toys commenced this course of action on November 14, 1980, looking for a declaratory judgment that Buddy L’s copyright with its Air Coupe ended up being invalid. Following the filing of this suit, on November 19, 1980, Buddy L filed a credit card applicatoin for enrollment of the Air Coupe copyright underneath the 1976 federal copyright statute, 17 U.S.C. 101-810. 1 The Copyright Office issued Registration No. VA 61-293 for the Air Coupe copyright from the exact same time. Buddy L then filed a counterclaim on February 4, 1981, alleging infringement of the copyright. 2

This situation falls inside the 1976 Copyright Act, that has been a revision that is general of 1909 Copyright Act. However, a number of the instances interpreting the 1909 Act is likely to be useful in interpreting the 1976 Act.

Part 102(a) (5) expands copyright security underneath the statute to « pictorial, visual, and sculptural works, » which will be defined in Sec. 101 to incorporate:

two-dimensional and three-dimensional works of fine, visual, and used art, photographs, prints and art reproductions, maps, globes, maps, technical drawings, diagrams, and models. 3

Because will soon be talked about infra, this meaning had been designed to be broad. Nonetheless, the statute carves out an exception to the category that is general of, visual, and sculptural works. » The meaning further provides that

the style of the article that is useful as defined in this part, will be considered a pictorial, graphic, or sculptural work as long as, and just to your degree that, such design includes pictorial, visual, or sculptural West Jordan backpage escort features which can be identified individually from, and are also with the capacity of current independently of, the utilitarian areas of the content.

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